Hazel Mine Tipple - Construction: Support Structure
03/12/2021
This diagram is from the December 22, 1900 The Engineering And Mining Journal where this tipple structure was fully described. It included scaled drawings. In preparation for my building the support structure of the tipple, I studied the architectural design diagram. It includes a scale ranging from 0 to 25 feet, which I copied and rotated 90 degrees and then placed two copies next to the vertical columns. As near as I can tell, the floor of the tipple was supported by 37-foot tall columns (see my orange line on the diagram), resting on the concrete foundation blocks.
Hazel Mine Tipple
The text describes these columns as having been made out of two 10" C-channels welded together to form an H-column. The webbing of the columns was then reinforced with cross-hatchings, as is clearly visible in this end elevation drawing.
Hazel Mine Tipple
For this phase of the construction of this model, I will be building the entire trestle structure as is shown in the diagram. The building-proper I have already completed, so this phase covers the support structure that holds the building up in the air. This diagram shows the tipple as it was constructed in the year 1900. I model 1924, so there were some enhancements made to it over those years. First, a couple of years after its construction, the tipple was extended by two "bays" on the left in this diagram, to cover track #5 (represented by the box car on the left). The last "bay" had no track under it, so I am presuming it was used for loading automobile trucks, which this tipple also supported, for local deliveries of coal. Second, on the right-hand side of the diagram, the tipple was later partially extended to cover the gearing shown in the diagram; the space over the last two bays. That is what my model of the building-proper has. I don't know when that extension was built in the real building. So, this diagram shows 9 columns, but my model will have 11 columns, to cover the two extra "bays" added on the left. I do not know why there were no columns in between tracks #2 and #3. Photos show the same configuration as the diagram. From the diagram above, you can see that there are a total of 4 rows of these columns, so I will be constructing 44 columns.
Hazel Mine Tipple
External Reference:
To build these columns, I bought a bulk pack of Evergreen's C-channel, part #265. These are 0.156" wide, which scales out to 10 inches in S-scale. These strips are 14" long, which scales out to 74 feet in S-scale. However, because the interior "floor" of my tipple building is inset vertically from the walls of the building, some of my columns will need to be longer than 37 feet, so I won't be able to get two columns out of each pair of C-channels. So, by buying the 100-pack (bulk) pack, I can glue two together to create the 44 columns I need, and have a few strips left over as spares.
Hazel Mine Tipple
I realized that I needed to build the basic structure of 11 columns, four times. So, to make an attempt at them all coming out to be the same, I decided to invest in the time to build a jig. I found two sheets of plywood left over in the garage that were nice and flat. I clamped them together to form a 1.5" thick board, and drove in a number of screws to hold them together.
Hazel Mine Tipple
As you might be able to barely make out from the photo, I drew vertical lines where each of the columns are to be on this jig. I based these off of the foundation blocks I already have on my layout, so that they are a good match.
Hazel Mine Tipple
Since I will be gluing two C-channels back to back to form one column, the other purpose of the jig is to allow me to insert those two pieces of strip styrene into the grooves, and then apply glue to the C-channels. This is actually harder to do than one might think. The C-channels in and of themselves are actually still quite flexible, so a jig is really required it you want straight columns. This jig makes it possible. So, I cut my jig on the tablesaw so that all of its edges were perfectly square to one another. I then used the tablesaw to cut the grooves you see in the photo. I cut the grooves just slightly deeper than the width of a C-channel strip, so that both ends of the "C" of the C-channel are pressed against the edges of the grooves. The kerf of my tablesaw blade is just a 1/32nd smaller than the S-scale 10" C-channel strip is wide, so by moving the tablesaw fence over a hair, I got a groove that holds the two C-channels back-to-back reasonably tightly for me to apply glue to their adjoining backs. This was really the only bit of guessing I had to do when cutting the grooves; if the grooves are too wide, the C-channel sub-assembly will be too loose; if too narrow, then the two C-channels will not fit, obviously.
Hazel Mine Tipple
There are three rows of horizontal sections that fit between the columns, so I cut those out in the jig in a similar manner. This will allow me to construct the basic shape of the trestle structure in the jig. (We were hit by a major winterstorm, so progress was halted on this for the next 5 days)
Hazel Mine Tipple
With the jig completed, I could start to build the first of four trestle sections. I inserted pairs of C-channels in each groove, with their "backs" toward each other, to form a shallow H-column. I could then apply glue to their joints. Since the columns don't need to be as tall as the jig is wide, the extra lengths of the material can just hang loose out of the other end. The front edge of the jig is my reference edge, so I am using a metal weight to press the C-channels against.
Hazel Mine Tipple
When they were all done, I used a razor saw to cut their remaining ends off.
Hazel Mine Tipple
The left-over sections were then temporarily inserted in one of the vertical grooves so that I could apply glue to them as well. When that was done, I carefully measured the distance between each of the vertical columns and cut a section off using the NWSL Chopper. These horizontal beams could then be placed in the jig and glued to the vertical columns. This photo shows the entire sub-assembly built.
Hazel Mine Tipple
While the jig is a good idea, at some point in time the assembly has to come out of the jig. Since I cut the grooves rather tight, it was a bit of a challenge to get the assembly out of the jig. I used the two pieces of strip wood you see in the photo as "chisels". I filed down one of their ends to look like a chisel. I could then pry them in between the styrene assembly and the jig to lift the assembly up.
Hazel Mine Tipple
Since the horizontal beams are only edge-glued to the vertical beams, and only their "C" ends are glued (and possibly only the top one at that), needless to say, the fully-assembled structure turned itself back into a sub-assembly "kit", as shown in this photo. I knew that that was going to happen, but I didn't know how I was going to deal with that, and just how bad it would be.
Hazel Mine Tipple
So, I flipped the jig over (the back side is smooth with no grooves), and then carefully re-assembled the kit version. The weights make sure that the assembly stays as flat as possible, and I had to carefully measure and verify that each loose piece went back into its designated spot. Again, this is still doing edge gluing. Note that I used a 4-foot long metal level as my bottom-edge guide. I clamped it down to the jig so that it wouldn't move as I was working on it. Between that and the weights, I was able to put the whole thing back together again.
Hazel Mine Tipple
Because I knew that the edge-gluing wasn't going to be structurally sound, I knew that I wanted to reinforce each joint once the basic assembly was put together. The newly edge-glued assembly held together, but I had to be very careful with it. I don't know how the prototype deals with these types of joints, but I decided to use a scale 6-inch wide "L" strip of styrene, and cut small sections of it off using the NWSL Chopper. The width of these small sections matched the interior width of the C-channels.
Hazel Mine Tipple
The idea is to then glue those corner wedges into each joint throughout the assembly. I still had the assembly flat on my jig, but it turned out to be very difficult to get the corner wedge to properly seat into the corner before I could apply the glue. The bottom edge of the C-channel raises it just high enough that the corner falls out each time. Since I have a bazillion of these to do, I had to come up with a quick and easy method to accomplish that. I tried several things, but I wound up with this metal angle bracket. I put that in the corner, and then placed the corner wedge on top of it with my pair of tweezers. I then used a toothpick to carefully guide it into the corner. I couldn't reliably use the metal pair of tweezers, because the styrene corner wedge is still a bit statically-loaded and so it would "stick" to the tweezers. A toothpick resolved that issue. Although it is a bit of a pain to have to constantly switch tools. Anyway, with the corner wedge pushed into position, I could then touch it with a small paintbrush loaded with glue to permanently seat it. I did that for every intersection on both sides, and that is what really made the whole assembly quite sturdy.
Hazel Mine Tipple
Here is a close-up of what one such intersection looks like. The other three areas of this intersection also have these corner wedges in them, and that is what gives this model structure its strength.
Hazel Mine Tipple
When it was all done, I couldn't wait to put it into its relative position to see what it looks like. The tops of the vertical columns still need to be trimmed to their proper length, with is about a real-world inch above the top horizontal beams. I will do that later when I actually get around to fitting the main building to the trestle structure. Next, I need to build three more of these. However, I learned my lesson, and I am going to update the jig by using a Forstner bit to make rounded holes at each intersection of the grooves on the jig. That way, I can apply these corner wedges while the assembly is still in the jig. It should make it easier to remove the assembly from the jig, and hopefully there will be no breaking of the glue joints in the process. If that works, then that will make the assembly of the other three much faster, and much easier. This first one took me 9 days' worth of leisurely hobby time to construct.
Hazel Mine Tipple
For a scale reference, I put a hopper car on one of the tracks. This is going to be quite an imposing structure when the whole thing is put together, probably much like what the real prototype was like when you stood nearby. By the way, I used metal squares to hold the assembly upright while I took the photos. Also, one further note; this sub-assembly is not anywhere near finished yet. I still need to put the diagonal bracing and their gusset plates in between the corners, and the ends of the C-channels columns had small diagonal braces going across them in a zig-zag pattern that I want to simulate as well. Doing the latter for all 44 columns is going to be a very time-consuming process. But, now that I have this built, I will be able to take measurements and determine how much styrene strip material I need to complete both of those tasks.
Hazel Mine Tipple
Before building the second assembly, I improved the jig by using a Forstner bit to drill out holes at each of the intersections.
Hazel Mine Tipple
This allowed me to build the base framework in the jig, as before, but to also install the angle bracket at each of the corners of the intersecting pieces. When done, I let it cure overnight, and the next day I was able to remove the second assembly with no damage to the assembly. The construction time went from 9 days to 5 days, thanks to the jig's improvements. The third assembly is now almost finished, too. Then, one more, and this jig will have done its job.
Hazel Mine Tipple